عنوان مقاله [English]
According to Qur'anic verse (Fater/35), man is a needy creature in his essence, and this neediness is his motive force towards doing things. Sometimes this necessity is not taken from the objective world; Rather, the mind gives credit to it by necessity. In this situation, man tries to meet his needs, which the objective world cannot meet. Human thought, with its creative power, validates perceptions that have no external correspondence; But they have foreign effects and maybe their effects are more than foreign objects. In other words, man is a self-aware being and performs his actions and behavior with thought; Based on this, in all work, it is necessary to falsify one or more credit perceptions. In this research, we will seek answers to these questions:
-What is Allameh Tabatabai's opinion about credit perceptions?
What is the presentation of credit perceptions in Mavlana's Masnavi?
The works of two scientists considered in this research were studied and the related materials were extracted, classified and then analyzed. Accordingly, this research is based on a library study and descriptive-analytical method.
From Allameh Tabatabai's point of view, "goodness" and "badness" or "goodness" and "ugliness" are matters of credit; But some works, such as justice, are compatible with the purpose of society; Based on this, their goodness is permanent, and some actions are in conflict with the purpose of society, such as "oppression", their ugliness is permanent, and some behaviors are based on different circumstances of "time", "personal circumstances", "place" and "society". They are variable and in other wordsthey are relative and not absolute (Tabatabai, 1992, vol. 5: 10, also Motahari, 1994, vol. 6: 431; Rawls, 2014: 445). Following the Qur'an, Movlavi considers "goodness of justice" and "ugliness of injustice" as the basis of all moral good and bad; This means that whatever is good and beautiful is from the category of justice and balance and maintaining the "middle ground" and whatever is ugly is from the category of oppression and unfair work; But we will find out in Movlavi's poem, sometimes he talks about relativity: the degree of goodness and badness of things is determined in relation to better or worse ones. Based on this, Movlavi sees the badness or goodness of things differently according to the circumstances; In such a way that a work is obedience and reward for the general people of Islam, in other circumstances it is considered as a sin for special people (Masnavi, 2008: 2816/2).
The result of this research showed that from Allameh Tabatabai's point of view, "good" and "bad" or "good" and "ugly" are credit matters; But some works, such as justice, are compatible with the purpose of society. Based on this, their goodness is permanent, and some actions are in conflict with the purpose of society, such as "oppression", their ugliness is permanent, and some behaviors are based on different circumstances of "time", "personal circumstances", "place" and "society" so they are variable and in other words, they are relative and not absolute. Based on this, from his point of view, goodness in relation to "courage", "justice", "chastity" and "wisdom" and evil in relation to "fear", "cruelty", "immorality", and "ignorance" are absolute. And it will not change under any circumstances.
Rumi is more strict in distinguishing between good and bad things; But sometimes he brings up relativity, and sometimes he sees it as dependent on the type of influence on a person's existence from a mystical point of view. Therefore, it can be said that he does not follow a certain rule; Rather, he has said the ideas that were correct in his opinion, and in fact, he is considered one of the theorists in this field.