نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی
1 دانشجوی دکتری گروه زبان و ادبیات فارسی، واحد آستارا، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، آستارا، ایران.
2 استادیار گروه زبان و ادبیات فارسی، واحد آستارا، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، آستارا، ایران (نویسندۀ مسئول).
3 استادیار گروه زبان و ادبیات فارسی، واحد آستارا، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، آستارا، ایران.
عنوان مقاله [English]
In tyrannical societies and authoritarian governments, opacity is the best way to express social pains and is a channel for protesting and of course, it is prudent; This means that the inappropriate social conditions and the suffocating atmosphere of the lands lead the artist to conceal and express his beliefs in the envelope of opacity’s literary array: An indirect and effective statement that raises the awareness of the audience, and in a way, it can be considered as a way of the writer's or poet's pen struggle against the rulers and the deceptive and hypocritical people. In the 7th and 8th centuries of AH - which is one of the darkest periods in Iran's history - our land was attacked by the Mongols and their rule. The tyranny of the rulers during these two centuries resulted in heavy social suffocation; as it has been very influential on Persian poetry and especially the form of Sonnet and has caused the introversion of Iraqi style poets. In the current study - which examines the literary industry of opacity and its relationship with critical issues in Hafez's sonnets - data has been collected through document analysis and described in a qualitative manner. The result of this research shows that the use of idioms in order to criticize the actions of oppressive kings and hypocritical Sufis and ascetics in the court of Khajeh is a characteristic of the poet's style, and among the types of opacities, the frequency of opacities of proportion and singular opacities are more than other types.